The Dictionary of Cannabis Sativa L.

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To all the cannalovers in the world.

One day I dreamed of a world without borders. In a world where kindness and respect go hand in hand, no matter where you come from, your skin color or your way of thinking.

Our thoughts are multi-colored, like fragrances, and as such they arise from innumerable corners, without political barriers and with no impositions by the laws of men.

Nature doesn’t understand about that. Nature understands about order and chaos, about scales of green colors, about multiculturalism, about life generating life, since death is not an end but a means…

The Science, our science, which belongs to all of us, animals and plants, is there to tell us the truth, and no less do so with our goddess plant, our beloved cannabis.

Because we already know that it treats many types of pain, it is able to mitigate epileptic seizures when no other medicine works, it is a potent anti-inflammatory that under new clinical trials proves its effectiveness day by day…. despite governments, despite hatred, despite economic interests….

We are nature….

In PEV Grow we are participants of it, we feel and beat with it, that’s why we work spreading this knowledge, sharing this simple dictionary with you… so that your hearts beat with ours… in synchrony….

For a universal medicine…..

John G.”White”

 

A

 

Abscisic acid: It’s a phytohormone that controls the growth and development of plant organs, as well as the adaptive response of the plant to light stress that indicates the onset of flowering. It is a plant hormone that keeps the seeds dormant so that they are germinated under favorable conditions.

 

AC (Alternating Current): Electrical current in which the direction of the electrical charges changes periodically.

 

Acaricide: A chemical product which exerts a systemic or contact action, which attempts to control or eliminate pests of small arachnid insects. Products such as Pelitre, an extract derived from chrysanthemum flowers rich in pyrethrins and their synthetic derivative compounds are known to be used in marijuana crops. More here.

 

Acclimatization: Acclimatization is the process of adapting to the new conditions for new cuttings and seedlings. It is a stressful process for the plant that is carried out by inducing the development of new roots to start the new vegetative cycle of growth. This process also corresponds to the change of conditions when passing plants from indoor to outdoor and vice versa.

 

Adventitious roots: Roots that grow in unusual places, such as in the pericycle (stem) of an older root. The auxin level influences this type of roots.

 

Aeroponics: A highly specialized high-performance cultivation method, in which the roots of the plants are in direct contact with the air, without any type of substrate, so that the nutrient solution is supplied in a controlled manner by means of pumps that exert water pressure through a closed circuit.

 

Air conditioned: Air trated to provide the ideal conditions to the crop, in order to promote a correct climate in the growing area by adjusting its relative humidity, temperature, oxygen and CO2 concentration, and flow rate.

 

Air ventilation: Circulation of fresh air from outside. An extractor and intractor create adequate ventilation in the growing space.

 

Afghani: Marijuana genetic from the Hindu Kush Valley, with phenotypic traits corresponding to plants of the subtype Cannabis Sativa Indica L. expressing medium sized plants, large leaves with wide petioles, early flowering, narcotic relaxing effects and aromatic scents of noble woods and earthy flavor.

 

Alcohol: Organic compound, liquid at room temperature, which is used as an extracting solvent for the purification of cannabinoids and also as an antiseptic for both, culture spaces and the laboratory stuff of cannabic preparations.

 

Alkalinity: Relative to substrate, irrigation water or any substance with a pH above 7.0.

 

Alkaloids: Organic compounds with narcotic pharmacological properties that can be isolated from certain genus of plants (“opium poppy” is the best known). They are called alkaloids because they are known to give alkaline pH in aqueous solution.

 

Alleles: Copies of the same gene that are found in their corresponding homologous chromosome in the nucleus of cells. When the two copies are the same, this gene is expressed with force, providing very homogeneous and robust plant traits in its phenotype, such as flowering time, leaf size and shape, pistils color, number of trichomes per cm2, cannabinoid ratio… etc….

 

Amps: Unit used to measure the current of an electrical current. A 20 Amps circuit is overloaded when it consumes more than 16 Amps.

 

Anemophilous: Plant that is pollinated with pollen scattered by the wind. Natural pollination with undefined pollen.

 

Anti-feeders: An anti-pest product that acts systemically or by contact, whose mechanism is to prevent the insect from feeding, slowing its reproductive cycle, thus reducing or eliminating the pest.

 

Apical meristem: Plant tissue in division from which new cells are formed, corresponding to the tip of a root or stem.

 

Arlite: Medium size gravel of ceramic material whose function is to absorb moisture. It is part of many commercial substrates for marijuana plants.

 

Aroma/Fragrance: Slight scent that comes off the marijuana plants which sometimes allows to differentiate between phenotypes. That is caused by the terpenic profile characteristic of the strain.

 

Asexual propagation: Reproduction which is not used in natural media or is not carried out in a natural way. One example of asexual propagation are the cuttings (clones), they express an accurate phenotype of the parental plant.

 

Aspirin: A compound of acidic character well known to all but used by some hydroponic growers to lower the pH of the nutrients solution. It has been proposed that using aspirin triggers hormonal reactions in the plant to enhance final yield.

 

Associated crops: Growing of another plant species at the same crop space where we put cannabis, such as garlic, marigold flowers, or other species, for two purposes: to camouflage the smell of cannabis, and/or to naturally prevent the proliferation of pests.

 

Autoflowering: Plant with Rudelaris genotype characterized for being not   depend on photoperiod variation, that is to say, the number of hours of light nor the light spectrum.

 

Auxins: Vegetal hormones that trigger vegetative growth and root development including compounds such as AIA (Indolacetic acid) and IBA (Indol-3-butyric acid), the latter is the well-known active ingredient in the famous rooting hormone product named CLONEX.

 

 

B

 

Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt): Bacillus thuringiensis is a bacteria used in biological control. It produces deadly toxins for caterpillars, larvae and worms, avoinding their propagation,  being harmless to higher animals and the environment.

 

Bacteria: A unicellular micro-organism that lives colonizing other higher organisms in a symbiotic way (intestinal microbiota, soil microbiota, etc.) or in a pathogenic way (they cause pests in plants and animals).

 

Ballast: Stabilizing unit that regulates the electrical fluid and starts a lamp. It consists of a capacitor and a starter.

 

Bastard Seed: It is the seed that a friend gives you because his marijuana has seeds and does not know what to do with them. They are seeds that you don’t know what they are or what they will give.

 

Beneficial insect: In biological control it is an insect that devours the insects which parasites of the plant.

 

BHO (Butane Hash Oil): Extraction of cannabis with butane gas. The commercial butane gas bullets for this purpose have a fairly pure butane, although it always has impurities of Isobutane and Propane. They are very flammable gases so it is advisable to perform the extraction outdoors, and please … do not smoke!

Although it extracts cannabinoids very well, it does not seem to me to be the best method. It leaves residues of butane in the extract. Read more

 

Biodegradable: Biologically degradable by microorganisms, or in biochemical way by means of biological catalysts (enzymes), decomposing the toxic compounds into other non-toxic or naturally occurring compounds (biocompatible).

 

Biosynthesis: Synthesis of a chemical compound mediated by living organisms.

 

Bonsai: Small cannabis plant or atrophied in a natural way or by artificial methods.

 

Boron (B): An indispensable chemical element as plant micronutrient. It is incorporated in the substrate as borax salts.

 

Botrytis: Very destructive grey mold, which spreads very quickly when humidity and temperature conditions are not efficiently controlled.

 

Bract: Vegetable mass in the form of a tip that grows along the bud and supports the highest concentration of resinous trichomes.

 

Breeding: To produce cannabis seeds or clones by controlling the genetics by mean of mother plant keeping or other more sophysticated methods.

 

Bud: What you usually put in salads, sometimes can be lettuce and sometimes not. I was kidding you…You already know what I wanna mean.

 

Bud enhancer: Organic products generally made with extracts of seaweed with high content in natural Gibberellins to enhance the production fattening the buds. They are also accompanied by PK-13-14 as fertilizer for the end of flowering.

 

Buffer: Chemical solution that dampens pH variations on the nutrient solution. It also refers to the chemical solutions used for calibrating pH measuring equipments.

 

Bulb: Outer glass cover that protects the tube from a high-intensity source of light.

 

Bulbous trichoma: A ball shaped plant gland that is loaded with resin.

 

 

C

 

Callus node: Tissue made of undifferentiated cells that is generated in the cuttings prior to the appearance of roots with the help of some phytohormonal complex rooting.

 

Cambium: Layer of embryonic meristemic plant tissue cells that divides and differentiates into Xylem and Phloem being responsible of plant growth.

 

Candela (cd): Measurement of luminous intensity of the International System. It corresponds to the luminous intensity in a given direction of a source emitting monochromatic radiation with a frequency of 540×1012 Hz and of which the intensity radiated in that direction is 1/683 W (watts) per stereoradian. A fluorescent lamp of 40W corresponds to 200 cd.

 

Cannabacea: Scientific family in plants kingdom to which our beloved Cannabis Sativa L. belongs, and also his esteemed cousin brother, the hops (Humulus Lupulus L.).

 

Cannabinoid: Different families of organic compounds, either of plant origin (phytocannabinods) or animal origin (endocannabinoid) and that are susceptible to interact with the families of CB1 and CB2 cell receptors in animals, generating multiple biological response actions. The fucking masters.

 

Cannabinoid profile (ratio): Composition of cannabinoids of a particular cannabis chemotype which informs us about the rate of psychoactivity and its medicinal properties.

 

Carbohydrate: Family of organic compounds that the plant uses as energy currency for its biological development (vegetal energy consumption), are compounds that the plant synthesizes through the mechanism of photosynthesis. Your body uses them too, don’t despise them.

 

Carbon dioxide (CO2): Colorless, odorless gas found naturally in the air and responsible for the greenhouse effect. It’s necessary for plant life because it is the gas that plants capture in order to carry out the photosynthesis process. If used well in indoor crops, it is very suitable for increasing the yield of cannabis buds.

 

Caustic: Irritant chemical product that can cause skin burns. They are products with highly basic pH such as sodium hydroxide (caustic soda), or quicklime (calcium oxide). pH-up products are solutions of some of these compounds. They serve to raise the pH of the nutrient solutions.

 

CBD (Cannabidiol): Nonpsychoactive cannabinoid that forms the active principle of the drug Epidiolex of the company GW Pharmaceuticals. The drug is indicated for certain types of refractory epilepsy in children.

But it is only one of its many applications, the CBD is an excellent antioxidant at the neurological level, anti-inflammatory, and has demonstrated apoptotic properties in various cellular models of cancer.

Its action is enhanced by the presence of THC, in addition to reducing its psychoactive effect. Read more

 

CBD Chrystal: Pure CBD between 98 and 99.5% of purity. Other crystalline cannabinoids that can be isolated are THCA, CBDA, CBG and CBGA. THC is an oil in pure form. Other cannabis-related crystals are the fertilizers we use in crystalline form as can be urea, potassium phosphate, potassium nitrate or ammonium nitrate (watch out with the latter, since is a controlled substance).

 

CBDV (Cannabidivarine): Cannabinoid with the same structural nucleus as CBD, but with the difference of a shorter carbonate lateral chain (three carbons), and with anticonvulsant properties.

 

CBC (Cannabicromene): Non psychoactive Cannabinoid that can be isolated from leaves with newly formed trichomes in narcotic cannabis plants showing also certaing analgesic, antibiotic, THC side effects reducer, and anti-inflammatory activities. It also shows cytotoxic activity in some cancer cell lines. A very interesting cannabinoid.

 

CBG (Cannabigerol): Non-psychoactive cannabinoid precursor of both THC and CBD. It possesses antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Read more

 

CBN (Cannabinol): Cannabinoid generated during the curing of marijuana. It has very low affinity for CB1 and CB2 receptors but with sedative effects along with THC. It is used in seizures of marijuana and its derivatives to assess the Psychoactivity Index as follows:

Psychoactivity Index =[THC]+[CBN][CBD]

Where [THC] ,[CBN] and [CBD] are the area of peaks that appear in gas chromatography (GC-FID) analyzed for each cannabinoid.

If the Psychoactivity Index is higher than 1, the substance seized is considered to be a drug. Pay attention, it is widely used for those who work with hemp, to distinguish hemp from marijuana.

 

CBT (Cannabitriol): Family of compounds with the same structural nucleus as THC but with diol groups in ring A (the same ring that defines THC as delta-9). You cannot imagine the amount of cannabinoids that exist with pharmacological activity not yet described.

 

CCL (Cannabiciclol): Cannabinoid in a very minority concentration, featured of highly consensed structure in the form of several cycles in three-dimensional form. There is another family of compounds of this type, with effects and medicinal value still to be investigated and documented.

 

Chalice: Pod which contains male and female reproductive organs.

 

Chelate: Metallic nutrient that is embedded in an organic molecule with the purpose of improving its solubility in water, and therefore also its absorption and distribution to vegetal tissues. One example is the EDDHA-ortho-ortho iron chelate, which is used in many liquid and solid fertilizers for fertirrigation.

 

Chimera: A plant (or organism) with at least two genetically different parental tissues. It is given in grafts, but in marijuana they are rarely used.

 

Cellulose: Polysaccharide or complex carbohydrate that provides structure to the plant cell wall. Outdoor plant stems have more cellulose, as they are plants whose stems become woody, since they can be converted into 3-metre high plants.

 

Celsius: Unit of the Celsius temperature scale, where 100 would be the boiling point of water at atmospheric pressure.

 

Chlorophyll: A family of organic pigments found mainly in the chloroplasts of plant cells and is responsible for capturing the sun’s luminous energy. They’re the solar panels from the plants… and by the way… very efficient.

 

Chlorosis: Condition that we can identify as leaf burning or yellowing due to cell death (where there are no cells there is no chlorophyll). It can be due to multiple causes, the most common are excess or deficiency of nutrients, due to an imbalance in pH, or simply burning the plant because it is too close to the light source.  Using LEC lighting techonolgy do not be too concerned about distance to the bulb.

 

Chromosomes: A mixture of protein and DNA found entangled in the nucleus of the cell. They become visible when cell división occurs. Cannabis has 10 pairs of chromosomes. Each species, whether animal or plant, has a specific number of chromosomes, human being has 46 (23 pairs).

 

Clay: Substrate made of organic particles and minerals. A typical clayey soil is the substrate used for growing orange trees in the Valencia County (Spain). It is not suitable for marijuana because it’s a soil that retains too much moisture and does not aerate roots.

 

Climate: Environmental conditions that make up the growing medium. If it is artificial there will be conditions we provide (indoor growing), if not (outdoor growing), it will depend on latitude, altitude, relative humidity, temperature and rainfall regime. Outdoors you should always be the one who irrigate the plants, the rest is done by nature. Marijuana is a plant whose roots require a lot of oxygen demand to develop.

 

Clon: Rooted cutting of a plant. It is applied to cuttings but also at the cellular level in biotechnology. Bayer-Monsanto is already applying the cloning of genetically modified marijuana, would you cultivate it?…. I hope not.

 

Colchicine: Poisonous alkaloid compound extracted from plants of the genus colcium. It is currently used as an anti-gout drug. In plant biotechnology we use it to develop polyploid individuals, i. e. plants with a greater number of a copy for specific genes. A complicated substance to handle.

 

Color Spectrum: Wavelength within visible light and measured in nm (nanometers), which gives us the color variations from violet (short wavelength) to red (long wavelength).

 

Compaction: Condition of the substrate when it is tightened too much, eliminating porosity and therefore aeration. It is recommended not to press the substrate too much so that the roots are properly oxygenated.

 

Copper wire: Electricity conductor wire used in the assembly of lighting equipment for the installation of an indoor crop.

 

Cotyledon: First pair of leaves after germination which serve as food storage for the plant until the true leaves start to make photosynthesis.

 

Cross-pollination: Pollination of females with different types of males.

 

Curing: Slow drying process that makes marijuana more pleasant to smoke. It is also the procedure by which we heal a sick plant.

 

Cuticle: Thin layer of vegetable wax on the surface of leaves and flowers.

 

Cutting: Fragment of about 10 cm that is cut from the lateral branches to be rooted (Cloning). When rooted, it becomes a plant with the same genetic material as the plant from which it was cut.

 

Cytokinins: Plant hormones that stimulate cell division and growth, and retard leaf aging, also regulate the opening and closing of stomas, the expansion of cotyledons during germination, and the plant immune system. There are commercial products that contain these types of compounds, but I do not recommend them.

 

 

D

 

Damping-off (Fungus plague): Disease caused by fungus, usually alternaria species, and is due to over watering. It attacks from the ground spreading over the stem.

 

DC (Direct current): A constant electric current where the movement of electric charges occurs in the same direction.

 

Decomposition: Putrefaction process that involves the action of microorganisms.

 

Dehumidify: Remove moisture from the air. To do that, you can find equipments that do it efficiently. Very advisable for the flowering phase.

 

Dehydrate: Remove water from cannabis. It is a process that is involved in the drying process, but dehydration can be done with solvents such as etanol, for example. Cannabis is purified by eliminating water and dehydrated with ethanol (ethanol extraction ).

 

Detergent (surfactant): Substance that reduces the surface tension of water, emulsifying greasy substances in water. One example is the potassium soap that is used as an soaking agent in foliar fertilizers, as it makes the fertilizer penetrate through the waxy cuticle of the leaves. It also acts as an insecticide against whitefly.

 

DHO (DME Hash Oil): Another method of gas extraction, similar to BHO, but using DME (dimethyl ether) instead of Butane. DME is more akin to cannabinoids, but extracts terpenes worse than BHO. This, coupled with the higher toxicity of DME, being that both Butane and DME are very flammable, is another method that I don’t like too much.

 

Diapause: Period in which the plant enters latency, growth stops. This occurs because of a dramatic change in the environment or a chemical agent such as STS in the production of feminized marijuana seeds.

 

Dioic: Cannabis plants whose genetics produce male and female plants separately. Dioic types are beginning to be produced in hemp chemotypes.

 

Dioicism: It is not a religion. It is the condition that shows a population of dioecious plants in regular marijuana seeds, obtaining both male plants and female plants.

 

DNA: Deoxyribonucleic acid, which defines the structure of the genetic code present in all plant (and animal) cells, this code constitutes 100% of its genotype and which gives rise to 50% of the final phenotype of the plant (expression of the genotype), i.e., the genetic code is established in the DNA, but its expression (phenotype) will depend largely on the breeding environment (climate, irrigation, stress, light etc…).

 

Dosage: Quantity of fertilizer or insecticide applied to a plant. Also regards to the amount of active ingredient that is administered to a person in a controlled manner. Smoked marijuana does not provide a controlled dose of THC,  an extract for ingestion or sublingual application does.

 

Double potting: Two-pot transplant technique that avoids stress on the roots. A pot is inserted into a larger pot breaking the bottom side in order to the root to continue expanding.

 

Double Zero: Hash of first sieving preserving the maximum quality. If you do it with a resin extractor of circular centrifuge type, you will increase the yield and it will be stronger.

 

Drainage: Empty the substrate of excess of water. A failure to properly drain water from the substrate can cause root rot and fungal growth.

 

Drip irrigation system: Efficient irrigation system in which a series of rubber pipes are used to circulate water at low pressure, these rubber pipes have small holes through which drips water directly to the base of the plant.

 

Dry ice: CO2 solid. Very useful for hash. It is also used in the extraction of terpenes captured in cold trap, being very effective cold traps, using a mixture of CO2 and acetone, reaching a temperature of -78ºC.

 

Drying: Provoke drying on marijuana. It is part of the curing process. It can be made in a vacuum oven, even for decarb, or simply using drying meshes.

 

 

E

 

Electrical circuit: Circular route through which electrical current moves, from a source to the ground (earth connection) through an electrical outlet.

 

Electrical overload: Excessive electrical charge. A circuit that uses more than 80% of its potential is overloaded. A 20 Amp circuit with a current of 17 Amps is overloaded.

 

Electrical transformer: Ballast device that transforms the electric current from Alternating current to Direct current.

 

Electrode: Solid electrical conductor used to establish an electric arc between the contacts of a high intensity lamp.

 

Elongation: Extended growth of plant cells in the stems, this causes general lengthening of the stem. The maximum elongation of a plant occurs at the beginning of flowering.

 

Embolism: Air bubble that blocks the entry of nutrients into the cuttings, causing them to dry or rot without rooting.

 

Embryo: Living part of the inner part of the seed that is in latent form. It is also the fertilized egg that gives rise to the seed in a pollinated female plant.

 

Encarsia Formosa: Parasitic wasp that preys on the whitefly. Very interesting to apply in biological control.

 

Endogamy: self-pollination from selected plants of the same seed production.

 

Epsom salts: Salt consisting of hydrated magnesium sulphate which is added to the substrate to enrich it with magnesium.

 

Equinox: A time when the sun crosses the equator and the day and night lasts 12 hours. It happens in spring and autumn.

 

Essential oil: First fractions of distillate of the pure extracts of marijuana buds that correspond to the most volatile fractions that give rise to the terpenic profile of the strain, that is to say, the aroma. more info.

 

Etiolation: Process of plant development (botanical research) in darkness so that the stems generate roots in a simpler way. The stalk is surrounded with insulating tape that we will later cut, preventing it from getting light.

 

Exogamy: Reproduction of cannabis plants from parents with very different genetic lineages. This is what is usually done when looking to incorporate a new and very interesting trait in the offspring.

 

 

F

 

F1 (Prime Filial Generation): First offspring of two selected parental plants.

 

F2 (Second Filial Generation ): The generation resulting from the cross between selected plants of the previous F1 generation. Normally, seed banks do not start to perform an F2 unless they are completely commited to stabilizing a new cultivar, leading to an F5 or later. Lots of work, space and time.

 

Female (plant): If it’s dioic cannabis, it’s the plant that produces the pistiliferous flower, oocytes and seeds. If it’s hemp, it’s probably monoic and therefore hermaphrodite.

 

Fertilize: Apply nutrient solution to the plant. It is also pollination of a female plant to obtain seeds. The right way to do this is to control pollination by passing the fertile pollen with a brush through the pistils of the buds.

 

Flower: In dioic cannabis is the bud of the female plant, which we want to grow sinsemilla. If the plant is a male, the one that produces the pollen to obtain seeds.

 

Flowering: Flower onset. Suitable for both female and male flowers.

 

Flowering stimulator (Boost): Organic or mineral fertilizer with an organic base very rich in Betain and Amino acids. Its mineral composition is based on the almost total absence of nitrogen, enhancing the contribution of phosphorus and potassium for the complete floral development.

 

Foliage: Green vegetable mass. Leaves and stems. Everything you see when the plant is growing. Aerial part of a plant that is not in bloom.

 

Foliar feeding: Spraying of water and/or nutrient solutions on the underside of the leaves in order to make nutrients absortion in a faster way compared to radicular irrigation. This type of feeding is very common in the rooting of clones and in the beginning of the growth stage, both in clones and seedlings.

 

Fulvic acid: Like humic acids, fulvic acids also come from bacterial decomposition of organic plant matter. They are part of the organic fertilizer formulas, being water soluble and assimilable by the plant. It is an excellent food for Mycorrhiza fungi, very beneficial for the marijuana growing substrates.

 

Fungi: Organism that is classified out of the plant, animal or protista kingdom. It feeds on plants or animals, as it is not capable of making photosynthesis. The most destructive parasite fungi are rust, mildew and botrytis. Other mycorrhizogenic fungi are beneficial for crops and compete for the above-mentioned pathogenic parasites.

 

Fungicide: Product that destroys fungi.

 

Fungistatic: Product that inhibits the proliferation of fungi.

 

Fuse: Electrical safety device made of a metal that melts and interrupts the circuit if overloaded.

 

Fuse Box: Electrical circuit box containing fuse controlled circuits.

 

 

G

 

Gamete (plants): Plant cell specialized for fertilization (may be the grain of pollen in males or the oocyte in female plants). Tehese cells have a haploid number of chromosomes, so that when fertilization occurs, they give rise to an embryo with a diploid number of chromosomes.

 

Ganja: Indian term referring to the cannabis plant.

 

Garden Center: Gardening business in which plants are grown for sale or experimentation.

 

Garlic: Culinary condiment that is used in many household anti-pest remedies consisting the juice of garlic which is added to some soap or moisturizing agent, in order to pulverize the plants with the mixture. It’s a good organic preventive agent for mites, thrips, mealybugs and some fungi.

 

Gene: The structural genetic unit of DNA that contains the code for the biosynthesis of a protein or proteins with a given biological function. For example: The gene or set of genes that encodes and regulates the biosynthesis of the THC-synthase enzyme, the enzyme that synthesizes THC in glandular trichomes. If this gene, or group of genes is absent, THC will not exist.

 

Genetic background: Everything that a prestigious seed bank can store in its cold chambers, whether in the form of cuttings, explants or seeds.

 

Genetic composition: It is the genome of a plant. Although it is good that a plant has a certain genetic composition, we must bear in mind that the same genes do not always manifest in the same way ore ven completely, everything will depend on the environment you provide. A genetic analysis of a plant can tell us if it is narcotic chemotype, and also can tell us which terpenes will biosynthesize, but the ratio of these compounds are mostly typical of the grower’s hand. Obviously everything has a limit. This is the reason by which you grow a ratio one to one chemotype but you find certain variability in the final product.

 

Genotype: Genetic composition of the DNA of the cannabis plant (or any organism). It is a term that specifies the traits that describe cannabis, however the term genome is more general, since it implies the traits but also the set of silent genes, as well as the regulatory genes. It’s more complicated than we can express in a dictionary. I’ll talk about it about it in a guide!

 

Gibberellins (Gibberellic acid): Plant hormone or phytohormone that is generated in the apical parts of plants (flowers and fruits), regulates extensive processes, such as seed germination, elongation of stem cells and their division, induces the onset of flowering. Some growers use it, although I do not recommend it for its toxicity in humans at high purity and cocentration (Gibberellic acid and Gibberellin A3). It’s a complex molecule, not very easy to manipulate. It is considered to be of opposite action to Abcisic acid.

 

Gibberellic acid: It’s a phytohormone that induces flowering and prolongs it, increasing the production of bud between 10 and 20% above in average. It is a very toxic product for humans, and requires caution and specialization in its uses and applications. It is also a germination inducer in seeds that have lost their germination vigour.

 

Glandular Headed Tricoma: Vegetable hair with high THC content.

 

Glandular Trichoma: Plant hair gland that generates resin.

 

Green Crisopa: Insect that devours aphids, thrips, whitefly… etc… and their larvae.

 

Greenhouse: Glazed structure, transparent or translucent methacrystalline plastic, dedicated to large-scale plant cultivation and allowing absolute control of environmental conditions.

 

Grow Shop: A shop specialized in cannabis seeds and grow stuff that emerged in Spain in the late 1990s as a result of the coffee shops emerging boom in Holland. The business idea was based on the demand for self-growing products.

 

Guano: Organic fertilizer based on bird and bat droppings. Native of Latin America. The bat guano is the most appreciated, being a product extracted from caves and habitats frequented by these animals.

 

Gynoecium: Plant with the entire population of pistiliferous flowers (female plant, whether from regular or feminized seeds). Also is referred as the female portion of the flower in angiosperms plants, formed by one or more pistiles. His male counterpart is the androceum.

 

 

H

 

Halogen: Family of chemical elements classified as non-metals (Fluorine, Chlorine, Bromine, Iodine and Astato). We mention them because, among other things, they form part of metal halide lamps, where a halogen element is attached to a metal, to give rise to incandescence with a specific spectrum.

 

Hash: Cannabis preparation from the pressing of its resin. The trichomes are first extracted by mechanical procedures, and then the raw material is passed through a mesh to be pressed. Its quality is directly proportional to the quality of the cannabis from which it originates.

 

Heating mats: Thermal mats that are placed under the growing tray to provide a constant temperature during cuttings or seedlings rooting.

 

Hemp: Chemotype (or different chemical species) of Cannabis Sativa L., whose primary use has been in the production of fibre but is also useful in the production of food and pharmaceuticals based on CBD (cannabidiol), terpenes and other minority cannabinoids.

 

Hermaphrodite (plant): Plant sexed initially as a female and that obtained from regular or feminized seeds, but during its flowering has generated male flowers, probably triggered by some kind of stress. Sometimes it’s a question of its altered genetic itself that promotes hermaphroditism, especially in feminised seeds whose feminization process has not been carried out conveniently.

 

Hertz (Hz): International frequency unit. Refers to the number of cycles per second of a physical magnitude. For example,  A 100 Hz alternating current has 100 cycles per second. It is also used to measure energy in electromagnetism, the light spectrum can be expressed in λ (wavelength) and Hz (frequency) by the ratio:

ν =c/λ

Where ν is the frequency in Hz, c the speed of light in m/s, and λ wavelength in m.

 

Heterosis: Hybrid vigour by which an F1 generation exceeds any of its parents by one or more of the desired characters. It can be applied to any feature in general. The most sought-after today are, time of flowering (we always want to reduce it), psychoactive potency or medicinal level, production or yield and terpenes composition. Resistance to pests, drought resistance, special cannabinoid ratios such as THC: CBD 1:1 are also sought in the new cannabis strain developments.

 

Heterozygotic Loci: Regions of DNA of a homologous chromosome  which contains differences with respect to its chromosome pair due to some type of mutation or deletion. Very seldom such mutations are expressed in the plant.

 

Homologous chromosomes: In a plant cell, each chromosome has its pair (except in sexual cells), that is to say, its counterpart, one contributed by the male and one by the female.

 

Hybrid: Direct descendants of two stable plants with different genotypes.

 

Hybridization: Create a new cultivar by the intervention of a new species introduced as male or female, all from two stable genetics.

 

Hybrid vigour: Greater strength or growth rate of a plant. It occurs in plants descended from a hybridization of parents with very different and diverse genes, which produce superior genetic variability.

 

Hydrochloric acid: Acid commonly used to prepare irrigation water for cannabis cultivation. It serves to lower the pH and keep it in the correct range between 5.5 and 6.5, it also increases the EC (Ionic Electroconductivity) by adding chlorides to the irrigation water.

 

Hydroponics: Cultivation technology based on the use of a pumped recirculated culture solution, having roots in continuous contact with either only nutrient solution (Hydro System) or with air and nutrient solution (Aero System), and using perlite as a substrate (or any other inert one). The technique allows the continuous oxygenation of the roots even though, since there is no organic substrate, the advantages of the soil microbiota are lost.

 

Hygrometer: Relative humidity meter in the air. The best way to drive  well your indoor flowering is that the relative humidity does not reach 50%.

 

Horticulture: Technique based on intensive cultivation in small areas for vegetal species of high agronomic, technological, food or pharmaceutical value.

 

Humic acids: These are organic compounds naturally found in forest soils, forming part of the fertile soil or compost zone. They are widely used in organic fertilizer formulations based on leonardite extracts. Its function is based on the enrichment of the soil by capturing mineral nutrients and favouring the growth of beneficial microorganisms in the substrate. More info.

 

Humus: Decomposed plant matter that makes up compost in forests. In its composition we can find humic and fulvic acids.

 

 

I

 

Ice-O-Lator bags: They are a kit of submersible Nylon bags with progressively smaller mesh micraje which are sewn into the base. Raw cannabis is introduced into the bags together with water and ice, passing the resin glands through the different mesh bags, leaving the impurities retained in the bags.

 

Indicator paper: Yellow strips of paper used as an indicator of the pH level of water. The colour scale gives an idea of the pH.

 

Inductive photoperiod: Duration of the hours of sunlight required for the beginning of flowering. The photoperiod corresponds to the ratio of day and night duration. The photoperiod and the light spectrum (moved to red or blue) will be responsible for the plant’s continued growth or flowering. This does not occur in autoflowering plants, these do not depend on photoperiod.

 

Inert: Substance that does not react chemically. It is also assigned to the culture médium that only provides physical sustenance to the plant, does not provide food or microbiota.

 

Inflorescence: Cluster of flowers.

 

Insecticide: Product that eliminates insects.

 

Introgression: To Incorporate a given trait into a population of plants without altering the other traits. This is very difficult to achieve, and it brings stability and uniformity to the strain.

 

 

K

 

Kif: Moroccan word for cannabis plants and their flowers. It also designates a mixture of tobacco and cannabis which is made to smoke.

 

KiloWatt-hour (kWh): Electrical power consumed in one hour.

 

 

L

 

Landrace: Ancestral genome, lineage. If it is a pure breed, it is a non hybridized variety originating from the country where it was created in a natural way. One example is Thai. In the seed market it is very difficult to find a variety that is not hybridized.

 

Leaching: Dissolve or carry away nutrients retained in the soil by irrigation.

 

Leaf litter: Unscientific term for the oldest leaves that yellowish or fall into the growing space. It is vegetable mass that must be removed to avoid the appearance of fungi. It also refers to the plant matter discarded in the trimmed buds.

 

LEC (lamps): Lighting technology very similar to metal halide lamps MH but with ceramic materials inside the bulb instead of quartz. These lamps are 50% more efficient because they dissipate heat better. The luminous spectrum is also improved,  which imitates the solar spectrum very well, both for the growth phase and for flowering.

 

Lid (lighting equipments): Bulb or outer protective coating of the lamp.

 

Lifetime Biocidal Activity: Referring to pesticides is the period of time that the compound remains active until it is metabolized or degraded by the environment, in case it is not degraded, it is said to be bioaccumulative.

 

Limestone: Mineral compounds based on calcium as main element that make up the substrate (or chemical structure of the soil), such as Dolomite or hydrated lime, which provides high levels of calcium in the substrate and also alters pH levels, generating alkaline soils (pH above 7.0).

 

Locus: Position in the genome of a specific gene or set of genes with a certain function.

 

Low pruning: Cutting of low branches (old branches) to reinforce the growth of young branches.

 

Lumen (lm): Unit of measurement for luminous flux. Corresponds to the amount of light measured in candles (cd) that falls at a certain angle (in a stereoradian).

 

Luminic Intensity: Refers to the amount of light energy that plants receive per unit area. The measure of intensity in the international system is candela (cd).

 

 

M

 

Macronutrient: In plant nutrition are the main plant nutrients such as Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (F) and Potassium (P).

 

Magnesium (Mg): Chemical element indispensable for the formation of chlorophyll. Read more

 

Manicure (trimming): Cut the large leaves from the buds after cutting. The leaves that do not have glandular trichomes are also trimmed.

 

“Marga” (substrate): It is a mixture of substrates rich in clays and calcite. It has interesting properties and nutrients to form a good substrate for cannabis.

 

Marijuana: Psychoactive chemotype of cannabis Sativa L. Illegal in most countries of the world but with a tendency to regularize at medicinal level.

 

Marijuana oil: Oil made with purified extracts of marijuana buds. More info.

 

Marijuana Seed Oil: Oil obtained from the mechanically first cold pressing of Cannabis seeds. More info.

 

Meristem pruning: Cutting of the apical meristem (the stem tip) so that the plant forks and grows in shrub form.

 

Metal grid: Wire or wire frame with small holes that serves as plant guide or support for the stems. It’s a part of the S.C.R.O.G cultivation method.

 

Micronutrients: Nutrients that the plant uses minority or even vestigial, such as Iron (Fe), Sulphur (S), Manganese (Mn), Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg), Boron (B), Molybdenum (Mo), Zinc (Zn) and Copper (Cu).

 

Mite: Small insect belonging to the arachnid subclass, which could be classified as insect for typical marijuana pests such as red spider. More info.

 

Moisturizing Agents: Natural or synthetic chemicals that decrease the surface tension of irrigation water making it wetter. An example would be potassium soap, which besides being a good preventive insecticide acts as a moisturizer.

 

Molasses: Sticky substance secreted by aphids and cottony mealybugs, leaving a characteristic trace.

 

Monochromatic: Single color.

 

Monoic (plant): Plants that give rise to male and female flowers (hermaphrodite) at the time. It is found in most varieties of industrial hemp.

 

Morphology: In botany, it is the study of the shape and constitution of plants.

 

Mother Plant: Cannabis plant male (reverted) or female that serves as a genetic reservoir when kept in a constant vegetative cycle. Its purpose is to be cloned to save time in preparing large-scale crops for either seed or drug production.

 

Mutation: Alteration of the genetic code by structural modification in DNA. If the alteration is too powerful, it can lead to a destructive mutation, creating unfit specimens that do not proliferate. Non-viable mutations.

 

Mycelium: Organ used by mushrooms in the form of roots and extending through the medium in which they develop. If it is a fungus parasite, they spread mycelium on the plant and substrate.

 

 

N

 

Nanometer (nm): Its equivalence in meters is 10-9 (millionth of a meter). It is widely used to identify the light spectra of lamps, i. e. as a wavelength measurement.

 

Necrotic: Localized death tissue in a specific part of the plant. It is due to illness or physical event, such as the breakage of a branch, burning for short distance to the light bulb, etc….

 

Nitric acid: Acid widely used to lower pH in hydroponic crops. It is one of the components used in the formulation of the famous pH Down. It also provides nitric nitrogen to the nutrients solution. More info.

 

Nitrogen (N): Macronutrient element essential for chlorophyll synthesis. It is essential for the development of the plant.

 

NPK: Distinctive that we can see on fertilizer labels which indicates the composition in weight (mg of nutrient per g of fertilizer) of Nitrogen (nitric or ammonium), Phosphorus (in the form of phosphates) and Potassium (in the form of potassium oxides) respectively.

 

Node: In botany it is the zone of the main stem where the lateral branches of the plant join.

 

Nucleus: In plant biology, the compartment responsible for directing the cell’s reproductive processes and protein synthesis. It is the cell core where the DNA is located.

 

 

O

 

Ohm’s Law: Physical law that expresses the electrical potential (Potential (V) = I (A)* R (Ω), where the potential is measured in volts, current (I) in Amperes and resistance (R) in Ohms.

 

Opened pollination: Pollination that occurs naturally, without any effect of selection by human action.

 

Organic: Produced or derived in compliance with the quality standards that certify an organic crop or an organic fertilizer. Do not confuse with biological, since a bio product involves being made with, or containing living organisms. A pure organic fertilizer is a product made of organic matter obtained by natural methods. An example is an algae extract without any mineral additives.

Something organic doesn’t mean it’s not dangerous, in fact, the most potent poisons are organic. A good example is aflatoxin, produced by fungi and requiring very strict control in the food chain, as they are labelled as carcinogenic substances of type A. And they’re organic!

 

Organic chemistry: branch of chemistry that studies carbon compounds. Within this subcategory we can find the chemistry of natural products, which is the part of chemistry that studies compounds of natural vegetable and animal origin. One specialty is the chemistry of essential oils and active vegetable ingredients.

 

Organic Compost: Organic or mineral fertilisers with organic base. Its function is to improve the physical-chemical structure of the substrate to retain more minerals and enhance the growth of beneficial microorganisms. Also is the Mixture of decomposed organic matter rich in nutrients obtained naturally. If it’s well decomposed, it will release a lot of assimilable nitrogen. I recommend you to use composting machines from the organic waste that you generate in your daily life (food waste), all this is authentic organic fertilizer.

 

Osmosis: Process by which a transfer of solvent is produced between two aqueous solutions of different saline concentration and separated by a semi-permeable membrane. The membrane lets the water pass but not the ions, passing from the most diluted to the most concentrated until the electrochemical potential is balanced. It is a phenomenon that occurs in cells and tissues, and is the basis of nutrient absorption through the root, although other processes are also involved. It is the basis for obtaining purified water through reverse osmosis filters.

 

Outer crossbred: Use of an individual with other traits to obtain a new cultivar in seed production. We do it a lot in our seed bank.

 

Overfertilization burn: Chlorosis caused by excessive fertilization. First the tips of the leaves turn yellow, then they curl.

 

Ovocite: Female reproductive cell.

 

Oxygen: Gas that we all know and that is more important than love to be able to live. Plants also need it because they consume it in the phenomenon of breathing, it is a process that they do during the night.

 

 

P

 

Padding: Protective cover for the substrate based on compost, paper, rocks, perlite… etc. In indoor crops, padding can sometimes cause problems with excess moisture and lead to a  fungus plague. Outdoor padding helps maintain moisture and retain nutrients.

 

Parasite: Organism that feeds on another in a destructive way and that causes disease in the host organism.

 

Pathogen: Organism that produces disease in the animal or plant kingdom.

 

Peat: Partially decomposed plant mass that forms part of the commonly used substrates that can be found on the market.

 

Peat-free substrate mixture: Culture medium formed by mineral matter such as perlite, vermiculite, sand, pumice stone etc. It is a biologically inert medium (without microorganisms).

 

Pelitre: Natural insecticide derived from extracts of chrysanthemum flower.

 

Perennial: Durable. In botany it refers to trees that do not suffer from senescence and lose their leaves in autumn, for example, conifers (pines).

 

Perlite: Mixture of ceramic materials in the form of powder, granules or sand and is ideal for building a substrate to get well-aireated roots.

 

pH: Mathematically it is the antilogarithm under ten base of hydrogen ion concentration, pH=-log[H3O+]. It gives us the acidity of the culture medium or irrigation water. Its scale ranges from 0 to 14, with 0 being the maximum level of acidity, 7 being the neutral value and 14 being the highest alkalinity level.

 

Phenotype: It is the outer expression of the genotype. It is the combination of genetics plus the environment we provide during cultivation.

 

Phloem: Vegetable vascular tissue that conducts food and water (processed sap) from photosynthetic tissues to stems and roots.

 

Phosphorus: Mineral macronutrient that is absorbed by the roots in the form of phosphates and is essential for the plant flowering and root development. It is found in all flowering fertilizers on the market.

 

Phosphorous coating: Inner coating of fluorescent tubes that diffuses light and affects the emission of various colors.

 

Photosynthesis: Biochemical process by which the plant obtains high energy organic compounds (sugars, proteins and fats; primary metabolites) from water, CO2 and light energy. Through photosynthesis plants also biosynthesize secondary metabolites as cannabinoids and terpenes.

 

Phototropism: Movement that the aerial parts of the plant make in response to an environmental stimulus or stress. For example, they stretch when their light source moves away, or twist the stem to receive direct sunlight…Plants have soul.

 

Phyllotaxis: Layout of leaves in a stem and its internodal structure.

 

Phytotron: Indoor cultivation chamber equipped with electronic climate control for experimental study in plant biotechnology.

 

Pigment: Substance generally of organic nature that gives color and unsoluble in the applicated media. Anthocyanins are substances that give purplish color to certain marijuana strains (marijuana pigments), substance that is generated in many occasions by a drop of temperatures during the flowering phase in outdoor crops.

 

Pistilifer: Flower of female plant, characterized by having pistils.

 

Pistils (Female plants): White woolly-looking hairs that extend from the top of the calyxes of female flowers. They capture the male’s pollen and channel it to the egg for fertilization.

 

Plant Cell: Basic biological and structural unit that defines life in the plant kingdom. It is composed of cell wall, membrane, chloroplasts, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, vacuoles and a nucleus where the genetic material is stored.

 

Plant hormone (Phytohormone): Chemical substance that regulates plant metabolism and its development.

 

Plant Life Cycle: Series of stages that the plant is fulfilling until naturally spreads the seeds or until you cut it if you are growing marijuana in a “sinsemilla” way. The stages are: germination, seedling, growth, flowering and end of flowering.

 

Pod: Dry chalice containing a mature seed or seed in the process of ripening.

 

Pollen: Fine, yellow micro spores that contain male genes.

 

Pollen sack: Male flower loaded with pollen.

 

Pollination: Transfer of male pollen from the anthers of the male to the female flower so that fertilization of the egg and thus seed production takes place. If the male has been treated with STS (reversion), the seeds produced will be 99% feminized.

 

Polyhybrid crossing: Hybrid plant intercrossed for more than one trait. Very difficult to stabilize, that is why the seed banks are centered on polyhybrid crosses F1 (stable male x stable female) using the same genetic material in each production, keeping the same mother pants with selected traits.

 

Pot: Container for plant culture medium.

 

Potassium (K): Macronutrient essential for plant life and required by the plant in greater quantities during the flowering phase.

 

Primordium: Belonging to or characteristic of the earliest stage in the development of an organism or part of it.

 

Progeny: filial generation.

 

Propagator: A structure in the form of a small greenhouse, unheated, covered with glass or transparent plastic, which is used to protect and acclimatize cuttings and seedlings. Small greenhouse without climate control or irrigation system.

 

Pumps: Equipment that pumps irrigation water in a hydroponic crop circuit. It may also refer to vacuum pumps that are used in the purification of cannabis extracts.

 

Punnett Square: A tool used by biologists and geneticists to determine the genotype of seeds in a new genetic crossing. It is useful for Mendelian-type traits (one trait = One gene) but not in multi-factorial inheritance (one trait = more than one gene). In cannabis, most of the traits are multifactorial.

 

PVC Tube: Polyvinyl chloride tube used as conduit for liquids and air.

 

 

R

 

Rail for lights: A metal device that moves one or more lamps back and forth across the roof of the greenhouse or grow room.

 

Red Spider: Small size spiders that bite the leaves of marijuana leaving small yellow spots but very abundant. It is a pest that must be eliminated as soon as possible, since it causes loss of vigour and delay the flowering phase and yield.

 

Reflector: Metal cover of a lamp used to reflect light from the bulb.

 

Relative humidity: It is the percentage of water vapour pressure that air has with respect to 100% at a given temperature. That is, the percentage of water that air has in relation to the maximum it could retain at the measurement temperature.

 

Resin Glands: Cell groupings that secrete resin composed mainly of cannabinoids and terpenes.

 

Revegetate: To make that a cut or ripe plant that has already passed the flowering cycle acquires new growth vigor when changing its photoperiod again to 18-22 h.

 

Root: Underground part of the plant that has the function of absorbing water and nutrients.

 

Rooting: Cause the cuttings to generate roots in the stem. The quickest and most efficient way is to impregnate the previously peeled stems with gel-rooting hormone and place them in an aeroponic rooting system, with water and air pump. A humidifier is used to increase the humidity in the atmosphere in contact with the leaves, since the cuttings have to be fed foliarly until the appearance of roots.

 

Root restriction: Impediment to the growth of the root that occurs when the pot is too small for the size that has acquired the plant.

 

Rooting hormone: Chemical Substance presented as liquid or gel form whose active ingredient is an Auxine hormone type that promotes root development.

 

Rosin: Very safe method of extraction of cannabinoids and terpenes, by means of which, the bud is pressed in hot, extracting the resin by pressure and heat. Its disadvantage: The yield is very low. Read more

 

 

S

 

Salts: Mixture of compounds resulting from the crystallization of fertilizers in the substrate and can be accumulated in the roots. They are produced by inadequate pH of irrigation water or excess nutrients. These salts end up burning the roots.

 

SCROG (Screen of Green): A green mesh, an intensive cultivation method that involves tutoring the seedlings through the surface of a net or mesh. It’s essentially the same as S. O. G.

 

Seed: Plant embryo in dormant state, containing a protective shell and a food supply for the embryo. It will germinate in the right conditions of heat and humidity, high humidity and 18ºC.

 

Self-growing: Marijuana growing for own connsumption.

 

Self-pollination: Auto-Fertilize with the pollen of the same plant. This occurs in plants that have developed male flowers (hermaphrodites) or in monoic cannabis cultivars (most of industrial hemp cultivars).

 

Senescence: Phase of decline of a plant organism from which its death or a new state of latency begins.

 

Short Circuit: Condition that occurs when a badly installed cable crosses. You can make the fuses blow.

 

Sink for drainage: Tank that receives the drainage of irrigation. It is also a receptacle used for nutrient solutions in hydroponics and that take the global drainage to the tank where the nutrient solution is stored.

 

Sinsemilla (marijuana growing): A term originated in the United States that designates marijuana cultivated for psychoactive purposes by growing female plants without pollination.

 

Slugs (snails): Soft and slippery insects that feed at night and hide in the substrate by day. Ammonia solutions are used to combat their spread and eliminate larvae.

 

Soap: Chemical product that emulsifies dirt (fatty matter). It is also used as a wetting agent for foliar fertilizers and biocides. In organic farming, biodegradable non-ionic soaps are used.

 

Socket: Bulb holder with internal thread to support the bulb. If it’s connected to the mains, don’t touch the thread with your fingers.

 

S.O.G (Sea of Green): Intensive cultivation method by which a high quantity of plants are agglomerated in a small space, giving a similar appearance to a green sea.

 

Soluble: substance that is capable of dissolving completely or almost completely in the solvent used.

 

Solution: Perfect mixture of two or more liquids, solids or gases, it can also be given in liquid-gas and liquid-solid form, among others.

 

Spannabis :Annual fair of hemp and “alternative technologies” held in March in Barcelona. It has become the most important fair of marijuana internationally.

 

Spore: It’s the seed of certain fungi and bacteria. Ferns that are nonflowering plants also reproduce by spores.

 

Sprout: Sprouted seed. New branch emerging from the knot of a young stem.

 

Sprouts removal: Remove slow-growing, diseased or undesirable plants from the indoor growing area.

 

Stamen: Male floral organ that gives rise to the anthers that contains pollen. They are the “eggs” that you recognize when you come out some male.

 

Staminiferous flowers: Pollen-producing male flower with stamens.

 

Sterilize: Clean the crop medium and grow stuff to achievea complete  microorganisms removel. The best way is bleach use for all the growing stuff. If we intend to sterilize laboratory stuff to make extractions, it’s better to use 96º ethanol or food grade quality ethanol.

 

Stigma: Pistil tip of a female flower that captures the pollen grains of the male. It is also a term that refers to the bad press and redress that has had the cannabis plant at a social level, since its prohibition in the United States from the Marijuana Tax Act in 1937, which banned any use of the plant, creating a scientific, political and social stigma.

 

Stipule: Each pair of leaf-like bumps that appear at the base of the petiole of many varieties.

 

Stoma: Small openings located on the underside of the leaves and which are regulated by a group of cells called “cell guards”, these control their opening and closing, controlling the transpiration of the plant (elimination of excess water collected by the roots, for example), and the diffusion of oxygen and CO2 depending on the needs of the plant. Stoma controls CO2 input and oxygen output.

 

Stress: Physical or chemical factor that causes imbalances in the cannabis plant, depending on the imbalance we can call it luminic stress (due to light), irrigation stress (due to water), chemical stress (due to phytohormonal imbalances)… etc… a stressed plant does not develop well.

 

Stretched Plant: Plant that becomes too long due to a problem of light stress. Either it gets too little light or it’s too far away from the spotlight in your indoor.

 

Substrate: Culture medium composed of a mixture of peat and in which we hope to develop a microbiota that helps plant development.

 

Sugars: Compounds that provide energy and structural sustenance to plant cells, and are synthesized by them through the process of photosynthesis.

 

Sulphur: Inorganic element that plants absorb from the soil in the form of sulphates. It is an important element because it is part of essential amino acids and enzymes.

 

Switchgear box: Electrical circuit box with on/off switches. No fuses.

 

Synthesis: Production of a substance. If the substance is generated by nature itself, we speak of biosynthesis. If the substance is produced in a laboratory by human intervention, we speak of artificial chemical synthesis.

 

 

T

 

Taxonomy: Classification of plants and animals according to their family relationships.

 

Teflon tape: Very useful tape used to seal all types of pipes. Epoxy resins are also used, they are two separately malleable rubber that when joined together harden and seal pipes and all types of leaks.

 

Terminal bud: growth point of the central stem or branch.

 

Terpene: Volatile organic family of compounds present mainly in the essential oils of cannabis and other plants. One of the most studied is Cariofilene and Cariofilene oxide, which are the terpenes responsible for the marijuana could be detected by dogs.

 

THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol): Cannabinoid responsible for the psychoactivity of the plant.

 

THCV (Tetrahydrocannabidivarine): Cannabinoid that has the same central nucleus as THC, but with the variation of the lateral chain, which has three carbonos instead of five. It has psychoactive effects, but of different intensity and duration than THC.

 

Thermostat: Electronic device that regulates the temperature of a water bath (e. g. it can be installed in rotary evaporator equipment, which is used to remove extraction solvents in the manufacture of cannabis derivatives). You can also adjust the temperature of an oven or extractor fan.

 

Timer: Programmable electronic device that regulates the photoperiod in indoor crops, telling the lamps when to turn on and off.

 

Translaminar activity: Mode of penetration and distribution of an anti-pest product in the plant, so that it spreads among the tissues without circulating through the sap. The persistence of the chemical in the plant is less than if it acts systemically.

 

Transpiration: Process of the plant in which water vapor and by-products are released through the stomas.

 

Transplanting: To remove a plant from its initial place with all its root to pass it to another culture medium in which it can develop better.

 

Tray: Flat container to start growing seedlings or cuttings.

 

Triploid: That it has three groups of chromosomes in each cell, which can contribute to overproduction or a major change in a new trait if the resulting specimen is finally viable.

 

Tying (Crop technique): Attach the central bud to a guide stick with threads or ropes to prevent wind breaking of the main stem or to avoid the bud’s weight bends the stem too much.

 

 

U

 

Ultraviolet: Light with short wavelengths, highly energetic and out of the visible beyond the violet in the visible spectrum.

 

 

V

 

Vacuum seal: Hermetic sealant that eliminates indoor air, making internal vacuum for a better preservation of cannabis. Highly recommended to keep your product for a long time, it can be made in glass jars, plastic bags or some little gadgets called vacuum dehumidifiers.

 

Vaporizer: Electronic equipment with adjustable temperature that allows to deposit the cannabis in a small deposit from which the active principles of the substance evaporate. It is a way of administering cannabis much less harmful than the way smoked, and is not mixed with tobacco. Read more

 

Variety: phenotype.

 

Vascular: Refers to the circulatory system of the plant.

 

Vector (genes trasmitter): Organism that transmits a disease, such as an insect. It is also a fragment of genetic material that contains a specific gene and is used for the production of genetically modified organisms.

 

Vegetative process: Refers to the different development cycles of a plant.

 

Vermiculite: Mica processed and expanded by heat. It is an amendment for the substrate and a mean of rooting cuttings.

 

Verticicled phyllotaxis: It is one of the 10 most important mutations that occur in cannabis. It is 5 leaves coming out of the same boarding school, not being a natural nodal arrangement. It is a benign mutation that should not prevent further development. You can smoke it, relax.

 

Voltage Rise: Change in the voltage of the electrical fluid.

 

 

W

 

Weed/Herb: Derogatory term for marijuana. Also term referring to an undesirable plant.

 

 

X

 

Xylem: Vascular tissue that circulates the raw sap (water and mineral salts) from the roots to the photosynthetic organs.

 

 

Y

 

Yellowing (between the leaf nerves): A very characteristic way of losing green color in the leaves, due fundamentally to sulphur deficiencies in the form of sulphates.

 

 

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PEV Grow born in 2009, It´s a company located in Valencia, a coastal city in eastern Spain. Born after 1 year of intense work our aim is to advise on the use and the use of marijuana seeds known. We ship seed anywhere in the world...